Views: 2023 Author: LONGMU Publish Time: 2023-04-04 Origin: LONGMU
The core concept of the fermentation bed ecological breeding technology is: by participating in the collaborative fermentation of litter and livestock manure, the breeding waste such as raw manure and urine can be quickly transformed, odors can be eliminated, pests and pathogens can be inhibited, and at the same time, beneficial microbial flora can transform the litter, Feces synthesize carbohydrates, proteins, organic acids, vitamins, and other nutrients that can be eaten by livestock, enhance the disease resistance of livestock, and promote the healthy growth of livestock.
The fermentation bed is to provide a natural ecological primitive living environment for livestock during the breeding process. The fermentation bed process mainly includes two aspects improving the living environment and feeding. The living environment is to build a fermentation bed, and the feeding is to raise pure ecological fermented feed and improve drinking water. In these two aspects, a natural and ecological living environment is provided during the living and feeding process of livestock.
The fermentation bed is divided into two types: underground fermentation bed and above-ground fermentation bed. The underground fermentation bed requires digging 80-100 centimeters below the ground, filling it with the made organic bedding, and then putting the livestock in so that they can grow freely. In places with a high groundwater level, an above-ground fermentation bed can be used. The above-ground fermentation bed is built on the ground, requiring a certain depth, and then filled with the organic bedding that has been made. The application of the ecological pig-raising technology matched with the special bacterial agent for fermentation bed breeding can completely solve the pollution of the breeding environment, improve the feed utilization rate and the quality of livestock meat, turn waste into treasure, and save labor and cost. It is a pollution-free, high-efficiency environmental protection technology.
How to change this situation, the native chicken raised in the countryside has good quality and delicious taste and is very popular among consumers. However, due to its slow growth rate (it grows up to be slaughtered in 5 months), the amount of sporadic free-range breeding by farmers is not much, so the overall economic benefits of farmers are not high, and it is difficult to increase their income and become rich. Develop the native chicken industry in rural areas, so that the native chickens grow fast, the meat quality is good, and the number of households is large. The adoption of "high-quality and efficient native chicken breeding technology" to breed native chickens can not only maintain the taste of native chickens but also quickly The speed of weight gain (1.5-2.0 kg in 90-100 days).
Local chicken, that is, local chicken, some are called grass chicken. Due to the interbreeding between breeds, the feather colors of chickens are "black, red, yellow, white, hemp", etc., and the skin of the feet is also yellow, black, off-white, etc., and the market consumption is also different. Therefore, it is necessary to select varieties suitable for the local consumer market. As far as Guangdong is concerned, Sanhuang chicken, Xinghua chicken, and Ma chicken are all better varieties.
Build a "three-dimensional net bed" brooding greenhouse to carry out professional-scale brooding. Farmers raise chickens with high survival rates, low risk, and easy success (those who can brood can start from brooding). The main points to pay attention to when brooding:
1. Relative humidity: keep the indoor relative humidity at 55%~65%, that is, 60%~65% before 10 days, and 55%~60% after 10 days; keep the air in the room fresh, without the feeling of pungent nose and eyes.
2. Supplementary light: 23 hours of light per day can be maintained for the first 5 days, and 17 hours of light (including natural light) thereafter.
3. High-density brooding. Before 15 days, it is 60~70 per square meter, and generally, each batch of brooding is 5000 (the brooding scale is determined according to the demand of the farmer for the chicks).
4. Timely drinking and eating. Chicks should start eating and drinking water as soon as possible, and make sure that the feed and water are constant, and they can eat freely. Add 5% glucose to the drinking water for the first time, and use it for two consecutive days; add 0.02%~0.03% potassium permanganate to the drinking water on the third day.
5. Room temperature: 35-32°C for 0-1 week old, 31-24°C for 2-3 week old, 23-20°C for 4-week old, and can also be lowered by 0.5°C per day after 1 week old.
Farmers should properly modify the chicken house according to the number of chickens they raise. It is required that the indoor floor should be cement floor, with windows and ground windows, so that the air circulation and lighting are sufficient, and the mesh bed or chicken cage should be prepared, and the three-dimensional three-story floor should be used as the base. should. The number of net beds is determined by the number of chickens raised, generally calculated as 45-20 per square meter (the density is higher in the early stage).
The first layer of the mesh bed is 40 cm high from the ground, the mesh bed is 30 cm high, and the distance between the upper and lower layers is 20 cm. The top of the first and second layers of the mesh bed should be placed on a dung-bearing board (three layers of boards can be used). The skeleton of the net bed is made of wood or white bamboo, and the four sides and the bottom of the net bed are fixed with a 1 cm × 1 cm mesh plastic net. Both the material barrel and the water dispenser are placed in the net bed. Enclose the courtyard woodland with a nylon net, drill a pile every 2 to 3 meters, tie the nylon net to the pile, and compact the edge of the net near the ground with soil. The area of the enclosure is generally not less than 1.5 square meters per chicken, and the wider the better.
The bought-back dewormed chicks (chickens that have been brooded) are raised in the net bed at the stage of weighing 1 kg, and are stocked in the enclosed yard after 1 kg until they are ready for slaughter (no release on rainy days, frost, and snow days) enter). During the feeding, the feed and water should be kept constant, and the feed should be taken ad libitum. Raised in the net bed, the chickens have a small range of activities, less energy consumption, and faster weight gain; chickens are raised in the enclosed yard and forests, which can prey on wild weeds and biological insects, change the food structure, and have high meat quality (keep native chickens) succulent taste).
Choose full-price broiler chicken pellets with comprehensive nutrition, good palatability, and easy consumption, and then properly match other feeds to raise chickens, to ensure the normal growth and development of chickens, speed up the speed of weight gain and keep the flavor of chicken, so it is necessary to match them scientifically daily ration.
During the brooding period, full-priced pellet feed for broilers should be used. When the feed is first eaten, the feed should be soaked and transformed, and crushed by hand. When the dewormed chicken reaches a weight of 1 kg, use medium chicken feed, and replace it gradually, not all at once, so as not to cause a stress response. At the same time, 5%~10% whole grains (or wheat) should be added, and 10%~15% green feed should be given.
During the free-range breeding period in the courtyard, full-price pellets for large chickens are selected, and 10% to 15% of whole grains (or wheat) are added to the diet, and 15% to 20% of green feed is added. If only full-price feed is fed, firstly, the cost of feeding is high, and the benefits are not calculated; secondly, the chicken has a lot of intermuscular fat, which makes it unpalatable to eat; thirdly, the unique flavor of chicken without soil is not liked by consumers. Adding an appropriate amount of green feed can increase the content of vitamins, reduce the cost of breeding, and reduce the intermuscular fat content of chicken.
The immunization program for native chickens should be determined in combination with the nature of production (commercial broiler chickens), and it is best to refer to the immunization program for broiler chickens, that is, 1-day-old chicks are immunized with Marek’s vaccine (if unconditional, it is not necessary to do it, This is mainly done in the hatchery); 6-7 day-old chickens are immunized with chicken Newcastle disease Ⅳ series vaccine (or Ⅴ4 vaccine), bursa B87 vaccine, transmission branch H120 vaccine, and other mixed drinking water; 24-28 day-old chickens are used for Newcastle disease Ⅱ vaccine Immunize once with drinking water; 60 days old and then inject with Newcastle disease I vaccine once, and then no longer immunize.
Doing a good job in immunization, disinfection, and epidemic prevention of chickens to prevent the occurrence and spread of infectious diseases is the key to the success of large-scale chicken farming. Therefore, it is necessary to do a good job in immunization and disinfection and epidemic prevention, reduce the death of chickens, and increase the survival rate and commodity rate.
Adding some drugs to feed and drinking water can prevent the occurrence of diseases. Add 0.02% furazolidone and 0.01% oxytetracycline or penicillin, gentamicin, etc. at the age of 2 to 7 days, and repeat the above drugs at the age of 13 to 17 days. At the age of 19 to 90 days, add chlorobenzene, anti-ball king, and other anti-coccidial drugs to the feed for deworming. The chicken house should be cleaned every day, and the ground and the dung-bearing board should be disinfected with quicklime. Spray and disinfect the outside of the house with compound phenol mixed with water every half month, and disinfect the chickens in the house with Baidusha. After the slaughter, the site should be thoroughly cleaned, rinsed, and disinfected; the disinfection pool at the door of the chicken house should always have lime or disinfectant, and pay attention to changing it frequently.
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