Views: 591 Author: Site Editor Publish Time: 2022-07-08 Origin: Site
The common problems of farmers raising laying hens are: pecking addiction, prolapse of the anus, high eggshell breakage rate, eggshell whitening, egg yolk pigmentation, etc., Which should be solved in a targeted manner in production.
(1) Pecking addiction
The following technical measures should be taken when pecking addiction occurs.
①Adjust the stocking density. If the stocking density of laying hens is high, the feeding troughs and drinking fountains are insufficient, and the activity space of laying hens is small, pecking will occur. Improvement measures are to adjust the stocking density, to ensure that there are adequate drinking fountains and troughs.
②Prevent laying hens from trauma. Chickens like red color. If a chicken bleed, other chickens will chase after it. Therefore, once a chicken has trauma, it should be isolated immediately and put back into the flock after recovery.
③ Guarantee the supply of feed. When restricting feeding, too much restriction will cause pecking addiction, which can be overcome as long as the restriction is canceled and full-price and balanced compound feed is added.
④Provide feed with balanced nutrition and full price. Too high, too low or improper proportions of protein, amino acids, energy, vitamins and minerals in the feed can cause chicken to peck. Therefore, when compounding the feed, it is necessary to make the content and proportion of minerals appropriate according to the physiological stage of the chicken.
⑤ Effectively control the environment and light of the chicken house. Under the conditions of high temperature and high humidity, poor ventilation, dirty air, etc., Chickens are very prone to pecking. In addition, when the hen is laying eggs, the cloaca is turned red, and it is easy to cause pecking under the condition of high light intensity. The countermeasure is to increase the ventilation and keep the air fresh. Appropriate light intensity is given according to the different stages of the chicken.
⑥Beak cutting in time, too late or improper beak cutting during the brooding or breeding period, coupled with poor environmental conditions, it is easy to cause pecking addiction. Therefore, the beak is cut off at the appropriate time during the brooding and breeding stages, which can effectively prevent the occurrence of pecking.
⑦ Do a good job in environmental disinfection to reduce the breeding of external parasites in chickens. When chickens have chicken lice, they will peck their body feathers, which will attract other chickens to peck together. Therefore, it is necessary to prevent parasites from attacking chickens.
(2) Prolapse of the anus
After the chicken lays eggs, the fallopian tubes cannot be retracted normally, and part of the fallopian tube is left outside the anus, which is called prolapse of the anus. If the prevention is not timely, it will cause great economic losses. The measures to prevent rectal prolapse are:
① Strengthen feeding and management. In the young period, the weight standard and light management system must be strictly controlled, so that the chicken body can be uniform and production can be started in time.
② prevent the occurrence of diseases. Strengthen feeding and management, regularly vaccinate and disinfect, observe chickens, and find those with diarrhea should be picked out and treated immediately. Strictly prevent feeding moldy feed. After the appearance, the following treatment methods can be taken: raise the affected chickens alone, reduce the amount of feed in the first 3 to 5 days, stop the hens from laying eggs, and eliminate the cause of the disease, and then use 0.1% potassium permanganate water and wash and disinfect with 2% warm salt water, remove foreign bodies and crusts on the surface, lift the hens and send the exudates into the abdominal cavity.
(3) The eggshell breakage rate is high
The main factors that lead to the high breakage rate of eggshells are:
① Genetic factors. The quality of eggshells varies greatly among different varieties or strains. Generally, the breakage rate from low to high is pink-shell eggs < brown-shell eggs < white-shell eggs, and those with more egg production chicken have a higher breakage rate than chickens that lay fewer eggs.
② Nutritional factors, mainly calcium, phosphorus, manganese and vitamin D3 in the feed.
③ Age, with the increase of age, the quality of eggshell gradually decreased.
④ disease factors. Diseases in laying hen production such as Newcastle disease, encephalomyelitis, infectious bronchitis and Mycoplasma septicaemia infection, chronic respiratory disease, egg reduction syndrome, salpingitis, aspergillus flavus, etc. Can lead to the decline of eggshell quality. Broken eggs increased. High doses of sulfonamides can also deteriorate eggshell quality.
⑤ Feeding method and time, light factors.
⑥ Cage factors.
⑦ The frequency of picking eggs and the stocking density of chickens.
① When selecting seeds, breeds with better eggshell quality should be selected.
② When feeding, ensure the content of calcium, manganese, phosphorus, vitamin D3, the ratio of calcium and phosphorus, the content and balance of vitamins and trace elements, and adjust according to changes in feed intake. Calcium feed, the calcium content of the feed in the morning can be lower.
③ Do regular disinfection and preventive medication to prevent the occurrence of diseases.
④The chicken cage should choose a shallow chicken cage. The strength of the bottom of the cage should be suitable and not too hard; the central part of the bottom of the cage should not be slack and sagging. The bottom mesh of the cage should be slightly larger if the eggs are not leaking and the chickens are comfortable. 2.0 ~ 2.5 mm is appropriate, the angle of the cage bottom is preferably 7 ~ 8 degrees, and the egg trough should be firmly fixed.
⑤ During the peak period of egg production, increase the frequency of picking eggs.
(4) Eggshell turns white
The whitening of the eggshell will reduce the commercial value of the egg, especially the economic loss of the breeder farm will be greater. Causes:
① White-shell eggs caused by seasonal changes, continuous high temperature in summer, and the color of the egg shell is obviously white. In autumn and winter, when the temperature suddenly drops, the chicken cannot adapt, which affects the metabolism of calcium and phosphorus, and can also cause the egg shell to turn white;
②white-shell eggs caused by nutritional deficiencies;
③whitening of eggshells caused by epidemic diseases, such as chronic Newcastle disease, leukocytosis, egg reduction syndrome, colibacillosis, pasteurellosis, avian influenza, etc.;
④stress and Light causes eggshells to turn white. Solution: keep the temperature of the chicken house suitable, prevent heatstroke in summer, and keep warm in winter; start to supplement calcium feed two weeks before the start of production, generally add calcium at 3.0% to 3.5%, and the content of calcium in the diet during the peak egg production period Increase to 4%, and pay attention to supplementing vitamin C and D to promote calcium metabolism, thereby improving the eggshell color. To treat diseases, remove pathogens and add vitamins A, D, E, C and methionine to the feed; to eliminate stress factors, the light time should be kept for 14 to 16 hours, the time of switching lights should be fixed, and some nutrients should be added appropriately.
(5) The egg yolk pigment becomes lighter
In view of the lightening of egg yolk pigment, the egg yolk pigment should be deepened without affecting the quality of the egg. The main measures are:
①Increase the amount of yellow corn in the diet, generally not less than 60%, add 2% red pepper powder, alfalfa powder, Pine needle powder and a pinch of vegetable oil.
②Add a small amount of concentrated and stable egg yolk depositionin.
③ Add 0.2% mold inhibitor.
④ Add 125 to 250 grams of antioxidants per ton of feed. The amount of coloring added to chicken feed is 250-350 grams of golden yellow pigment per ton of laying hen feed, and 60 grams of Lukangding(medicine name) per ton of feed.
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