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Teaching You How To Raise Ducks Efficiently?

Views: 2024     Author: LONGMU     Publish Time: 2024-03-08      Origin: LONGMU


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In the duck industry, duck farming can be divided into two types according to the production purpose: meat and egg. The feeding and management measures taken by duck varieties with different production purposes are also slightly different, so everyone should pay attention to these breeding technical points during breeding. To differentiate, so that laying ducks and meat ducks can obtain the most suitable feeding and management. The specific breeding technical points of laying ducks and meat ducks are as follows:

1. Selection of duck breeds

There are many varieties of ducks, which can be divided into two types according to their production purposes: meat and eggs.

1. Meat varieties

(1) "Peking duck", under good feeding and management, can weigh about 2.5 kilograms at the age of 50-60 days and can reach 3 kilograms after fertilization.

(2) "Australian Dicko Duck" grows and develops quickly, and its weight can reach 3.5 kilograms after 8 weeks of feeding.

(3) The British "Cherry Valley Duck" can reach more than 3 kilograms after 7 weeks of feeding.

(4) "Muscovy duck", native to South America, Muscovy duck grows slowly. At 10 weeks old, the weight of male ducks can reach 3.5 kg and that of female ducks 2 kg. The first generation of hybrids produced by the cross between male Muscovy ducks and female domestic ducks, commonly known as "semi-Muscovy ducks", has fast growth, large size, good meat quality, and strong vitality but no reproductive ability.

2. Egg varieties

(1) "Shaoya", native to Zhejiang Province, is small in size and has an annual output of 250-300 pieces;

(2) "Jinding Duck" is produced in Longhai, Fujian. The egg production rate is high, with an annual output of 260-300 eggs.

(3) Shelduck, a general name for various local species in my country, has sparrow-like feathers and is widely distributed and numerous. The Zhongshan Shelduck in Guangdong lays about 240 eggs per year; The quantity is also high.

2. Construction of duck house

Whether you can build a comfortable environment for ducks has a great impact on the growth of ducks. First of all, to raise ducks, you need to select a site to build a duck house. The duck house is a place where ducks live, rest, and lay eggs. The quality of the site and the reasonable arrangement of the duck house are related to whether the duck production performance can be fully exerted. At the same time, it also It is also related to feeding management work and economic benefits. Therefore, the choice of site should be based on a comprehensive balance of factors such as the nature of the duck farm, natural conditions, and social conditions. Normally, the following aspects must be considered when selecting a site.

1. Duck farm positioning. The location of the duck farm is very important, so you must choose a good location. This is because the main task of the meat and egg duck farms is to provide fresh commercial duck meat and duck eggs to urban and rural residents. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only the convenience of services, but also the urban environmental sanitation, and the health and epidemic prevention of the ducks in the farms. The site should be selected in the suburbs, generally 10-20 kilometers away from the town. The duck breeding farm can be further away from the town.

2. There are sufficient water sources and good water quality. The construction of a duck house must first consider the water source. It should generally be built on the edge of rivers, ditches, ponds, and lakes. The water surface should be as wide as possible and the water depth should be about 1 meter. The water source is slow-flowing water. The water source should be pollution-free. There should be no pollution sources such as livestock and poultry processing plants, chemical plants, and pesticide plants near the duck farm. It should not be too close to residential areas and should be built upstream of factories and towns as much as possible. Large duck farms should build their deep wells to ensure water quality. Water quality must be checked randomly, and the number of coliform bacteria per 100 ml of water must not exceed 5,000.

2. The terrain is high and dry, with good drainage. Although ducks can live in water, the house should be kept dry, not wet, let alone flooded. Therefore, the duck house site should be slightly higher and slightly inclined towards the water surface, with at least a small slope of 5°-10° to facilitate drainage. When building a site in a mountainous area, it is not advisable to build it on the top of a mountain with a large temperature difference between day and night, or in a deep valley with poor ventilation and humidity. Instead, you should choose to build a site halfway up the mountain. The slope of the mountainside should not be too steep, nor should it be rugged; low-lying and humid places can easily encourage the breeding and reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms, and ducks are prone to disease.

3. The house faces south or southeast. The site is located on the northern slope of the river and canal water source, with the slope facing south or southeast. The water sports ground and outdoor sports ground are on the south side, and the gate of the house also faces south or southeast. This orientation provides a large lighting area in winter, which is conducive to warmth preservation, and good ventilation in summer, and is not exposed to direct sunlight. It has the characteristics of warm in winter and cool in summer, which is conducive to improving production performance.

4. Feeding and management of ducks at different stages

1) Duckling feeding and management

1. Brooding conditions:

(1) Temperature: Suitable and stable brooding temperature is the key to improving the survival rate of ducklings. Generally, the temperature at night is required to be 1-20C higher than that during the day, which is conducive to the rest of the ducks, and avoids high and low temperatures.

(2) Humidity: In the early stage of brooding, the indoor temperature is high and water evaporates quickly, so the relative humidity is higher at this time. If the humidity is too low, the toes will become dry and the energy will be low, which will affect health and growth. In southern my country, the requirements can generally be met.

(3) Stocking density: If the density is too high, it will not only affect health, growth, and development, but also easily cause the spread of diseases; if the density is too small, it will be difficult to keep warm, and the utilization rate of the housing will be low. Density should change with age and season.

(4) Light: Sunlight can increase the body surface temperature of ducks, enhance blood circulation, promote bone growth, increase appetite, stimulate the digestive system, and help metabolism. If natural light is insufficient, artificial light can be used to make up for it.

2. Key points of duckling management:

(1) Drink water and start eating: When raising ducklings, we must master the principle of "drink water early, start eating early, drink water first, and start eating later" to ensure that they can be fed meat ducks 24 hours after hatching. If they are egg-laying ducks, Egg-feeding duck feed (it is best to purchase from a feed company with a complete technical consultation and after-sales service system.)

(2) Frequency of feeding: Feed less often and gradually transition to fixed meals. Feed once every 2 hours before 3 days of age, twice in the evening, and gradually reduce to three times a day at 21 days of age.

(3) Bathing and exercise: Bathing and exercise during the brooding period can promote metabolism, enhance physical fitness, and promote development. The tail fat glands of ducklings are underdeveloped, so the initial bathing time is short and the water should be shallow. Children should start bathing in shallow water for 5-8 minutes every day when they are 1 week old. At 2 weeks old, they can bathe for 15-20 minutes, and then gradually extend the bath time.

(4) Group management: Ducklings of different ages and different batches cannot be raised in the same group. They must be divided into groups according to the ducks’ physique and development. 400-500 ducks/group at 1 week old; 250-300 ducks/group at 2 weeks old. ;3 weeks old, 150-200/group.

(4) Pecking: To prevent ducks from pecking, beaks can be trimmed at 2-3 weeks of age. Use a peck cutter to cut the middle part of the duck's beak. To prevent bleeding from the severed edge, vitamin K can be added to the drink two days before and after the cut.

2) Feeding and management of ducklings for meat

Ducks that are 3-7 weeks old are called middle chicks (or young ducks). This stage is a period of rapid growth and development for ducks. They have high nutritional needs, strong appetites, large feed intake, and strong adaptability to the external environment.

1. Beverage and feeding amount: Use a transition period of 3-5 days to transition from small duck feed to medium duck feed. If it is half local ducks, medium duck feed can also be used. Feed as much as you can freely. The amount of feed consumed is appropriate.

2. Keep the pen clean and dry: Ducklings are easy to manage and require relatively simple housing conditions, as long as they are windproof and rainproof. However, the pen must be kept clean and dry, and a shade shed must be built in summer.

3. Appropriate density: As the age increases, the density should be continuously adjusted to keep the air fresh in the circle.

5. Bathing: To promote metabolism and the growth of duck body muscles and feathers, bathe regularly every day, but the time should not be too long, especially in the later period, to avoid excessive heat dissipation and affect economic benefits.

3) Feeding and management of laying ducks during the breeding period

The period from 5 weeks to 16 weeks of age for laying ducks is called the breeding period. Characteristics of this period: ① Rapid growth and development, strong mobility, ability to eat and sleep, and need to be managed with rich feed. ② Nerve sensitivity, strong gregariousness, and strong plasticity, suitable for training and cultivating good life patterns.

1. Feed: It takes 3-5 days to transition the duck feed from egg-laying duck feed to egg-rearing duck feed.

2. Exercise: Properly strengthen exercise to promote bone and muscle development, prevent obesity, and do regular exercise in circles every day.

3. Contact: Have more contact with ducks to increase their courage and prevent flock panic.

4. Feed restriction: Feed restriction is used to control body weight and avoid the premature onset of production so that the age of onset of production is neat, the eggs are large, the egg production peak lasts for a long time, and the morbidity and mortality during the laying period are reduced. However, feeding restriction is not the same as feeding corn. There are three methods: limited quantity, limited quality, and time limit, that is, limiting feed intake, controlling feed nutrient concentration, and controlling feeding frequency or feeding time.

6. Lighting: No strong lighting is required. The standard lighting time is required to be stable at 8-10 hours a day. It should not be increased before production starts.

4) Feeding and management of laying ducks

The period from the beginning of laying eggs to the time when they are eliminated is called a laying duck. Generally, the utilization period of egg-type shelducks is about 350 days, which is the first year of laying eggs. Some cases are reused in the second and third years after molting, but their production performance declines year by year, especially the fertilization rate, hatching rate, and eggshell thinning.

1. Feed and feeding amount: Egg production should be pushed to the peak as soon as possible in the early stage of egg laying. In terms of nutrition, the type of feed should be selected according to the natural environment and breeding scale. Small-laying ducks in mountainous areas should use full-price laying duck feed that is suitable for mountain ducks to mature early, have small eggs, and have high egg production rates. High-yielding large-laying ducks along the coast should use full-price egg-laying duck feeds suitable for their characteristics. When purchasing or preparing your feed, you should pay attention to the selection to meet the nutritional needs of the ducks and maintain a strong physique. The amount of feed should be ad libitum.

2. Lighting: The principle of lighting when entering the laying period is: it should only be gradually extended until it reaches 16 hours of lighting every day and night, and cannot be shortened, and it cannot be illuminated suddenly and then stopped, or early or late; the light intensity cannot be strong and weak, but only gradually. Strong, up to 8 lux per square meter (2 W/m2). Operating procedures must be maintained to avoid causing stress reactions.

3. Temperature: The optimal temperature is 13-200c. Ducks have no sweat glands to dissipate heat. If the temperature is too high, feed intake is reduced, physiological functions are interfered with, egg weight is reduced, albumen becomes thinner, egg shells become thinner, and egg production rate decreases. When the temperature is below 50c, it is necessary to keep warm and heat up, and when it exceeds 300c, it is necessary to prevent heatstroke and cool down.

4. Management points in different seasons: In spring, focus on mildew prevention and ventilation. Open doors and windows, provide adequate ventilation, change bedding frequently, keep the house dry, dredge ditches, do not allow sewage to accumulate in the sports ground, prevent feed from mold and deterioration, and disinfect the duck house regularly. To prevent heatstroke and cool down in summer, open doors and windows, install exhaust fans and erect awnings. Evacuate duck flocks appropriately and reduce the breeding density. In autumn, artificial lighting should be supplemented so that the daily lighting time should be no less than 16 hours, and the intensity should be 5-8 lux (1.25-2 W/m2). The key points in winter are to prevent cold and heat preservation and maintain a certain lighting time, increase the breeding density per unit area to 8-9 animals/m2, and close doors and windows to prevent drafts.

4. Technical key points of efficient duck farming

The living habits of ducks alternate between day and night. Affected by this, some duck habits have also produced corresponding diurnal changes. If we can comply with this changing pattern of ducks and implement regular and scientific feeding, we can raise and manage the ducks well, reduce the feeding costs, effectively increase the egg production rate of laying ducks and the weight gain rate of meat ducks, thereby improving the feeding efficiency.

1) Diurnal changes in duck feeding

Under natural light, ducks have three feeding climaxes in the day and night, respectively in the morning, noon, and evening. Accordingly, the following should be done in feeding and management:

1. Strengthen early feeding

Ducks have a particularly strong appetite at dawn. Feeding them well at this time can make laying ducks lay more eggs and meat ducks gain weight quickly.

2. Grazing regularly

Grazing should be carried out when the ducks have three feeding climaxes in the morning, noon, and evening. At other times, the ducks should be allowed to rest or driven into the water to combine work and rest. If administration with drinking water or mixed feed is required, it is best to arrange the administration during the peak feeding period of ducks.

2) The diurnal variation pattern of duck egg-laying

Under normal circumstances, laying ducks mainly lay eggs from after midnight to before dawn, and usually do not lay eggs during the day. Therefore, to increase the egg production rate of ducks, you should do the following:

1. Turn off the lights on time at 10 p.m. and stop lighting to ensure that the laying ducks can lay eggs in a quiet environment from 1 to 4 p.m. the next day.

2. If it is found that ducks generally lay eggs later than 5 o'clock, and the egg heads are small, it means that the concentrate in their diet is insufficient, and the concentrate should be added in time according to the standard.

3. If ducks lay eggs during the day, it is mostly due to a single feed, insufficient nutrition, grazing too early in the morning, or harsh environments such as high temperature and humidity in the duck house. Their feeding and management conditions should be improved in a targeted manner, and the grazing time of ducks every morning (8 a.m.) should be temporarily postponed.

3) Diurnal changes in duck mating

Under normal circumstances, breeder ducks generally choose the vast water surface in the morning or evening for mating. Therefore, during the peak mating period of the breeding ducks in the morning or evening, they should be driven to deeper waters to increase the fertilization rate of the breeding ducks.

4) The diurnal variation pattern of Youshi disease

Youshi disease is named after ducks that become ill at Youshi (17-19 o'clock) every afternoon. When the disease occurs, ducks commotion violently and gather rapidly, causing some weak ducks to be trampled to death. The mortality rate often reaches about 20%. The disease is caused by stress such as transportation. Therefore, various stresses before and after long-distance transportation of ducks should be minimized. Within a few days after the ducks are transported, anti-stress drugs should be added to the diet 1 to 2 hours before Youshi every day to prevent the occurrence of Youshi disease in time.

5) Diurnal changes in immune response

According to practical measurements, the sensitivity of poultry to immune preparations (vaccines, vaccines, etc.) changes periodically between day and night. During the day, the sensitivity is poor and the immune response is slow; at night, near the early morning, adrenaline is secreted the most and the immune response is the most sensitive. Therefore, the best effect is to immunize poultry (including ducks, geese, and chickens) in the early morning. Its specific benefits include two points:

1. Poultry stop moving at night, are easy to catch, and have little stress response.

2. Vaccination during the best period for poultry’s immune response (early morning every day) can help them develop immunity faster and better.

5. Raising ducks in summer to prevent heatstroke, cooling, and heat stress

In summer, the temperature in central and southern my country often exceeds 30°C, or even 40°C, which is not high temperature. In this hot weather, ducks are prone to heatstroke and heat stress, especially ducks raised in greenhouses, which can lead to ducks fainting or dying in large numbers. The most suitable growth temperature for meat ducks after 28 days of age is 21°C. To control the temperature, the following thirteen aspects can be taken to prevent heatstroke and cool down.

1. Enhance ventilation

Enhanced ventilation in the duck house can promote air flow, speed up the evaporation of the duck's body, and remove heat, thereby lowering the duck's body temperature. To reduce the occurrence and spread of diseases, the air in the house should be kept fresh. When the climate changes, the ventilation volume should be adjusted promptly and the temperature inside the house should be adjusted to avoid large temperature rises and falls. Excessive temperature differences may cause ducks to catch colds.

2. Shade and cool down

To reduce solar radiation, the roof of the duck shed can be painted white, and the greening and use of plants for shading can effectively reduce the temperature inside the house. Due to direct sunlight, the ducks are mostly concentrated inside the house, so plants or sunshade nets should be used above the sports ground to properly shade the shed. Shade can increase the activity range of ducks and avoid an increase in individual heat production due to crowding.

3. Spray cooling

Cooling measures such as water spraying on the roof and water atomization in the house can be taken every 1 to 2 hours for about 10 to 15 minutes each time. It can be used in conjunction with the use of disinfectants to achieve disinfection and cooling.

4. Change the feeding mode

Online breeding can avoid contact with feces, reduce the chance of disease transmission, and reduce the incidence rate. Moreover, online breeding can reduce the movement of ducks, reduce duck nutritional consumption and heat production, and is conducive to the healthy growth of ducks. When raising ducks on the ground, it is best not to use thick bedding. In the later period, they should be raised on cement or brick floors to increase the frequency of manure cleaning, which can effectively alleviate the impact of rising temperatures.

5. Appropriately reduce the stocking density

It should be avoided that the overcrowding of overcrowded duck flocks will reduce the heat dissipation area of individual ducks, increase the heat production of the ducks themselves, increase the difficulty of heatstroke prevention and cooling, increase the probability of heat stress and heatstroke in the duck flocks, and cause unnecessary economic losses.

6. Appropriately increase the number of drinking fountains

Ducks are waterfowl and have the habit of bathing. Drinking fountains should be added appropriately to avoid the impact of frequent bathing on drinking water due to hot weather and ensure that ducks have enough drinking water.

7. Supply fresh feed

In hot and humid weather coupled with water spraying for cooling, the feed is prone to clumping and deterioration, affecting palatability, causing anorexia in ducks, and in severe cases, poisoning. Therefore, do not add too much feed each time, and the feed should be kept fresh to prevent mildew. The barrel should be emptied once a day and cannot be accumulated. At noon, green vegetables or watermelon rinds can be added appropriately to relieve heat stress.

8. Adjust feeding time

Feeding should be done at night or early in the morning. Feeding should be reduced or not done when it is hot during the day, and ducks should be driven appropriately to increase feed intake.

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