Views: 2023 Author: LONGMU Publish Time: 2023-08-21 Origin: LONGMU
The quality of eggshell is an important factor affecting the economic benefits of poultry and egg industry. Laying hens lay eggs, and sometimes produce some thin-shelled eggs, which will affect the overall quality of the eggs and reduce the breeding benefits. The production of thin-shell eggs by laying hens is related to factors such as physiology, management, diseases, drugs, and feed. In order to reduce breeding losses, farmers should take measures to prevent this problem in daily management.
1. physiological factors
1）.Influenced by genetic factors
Different breeds of chickens have different eggshell quality. For example, the eggshells of native breeds are thicker, while the eggshells of foreign breeds are thinner and easy to break. The method of selection can be used to increase the eggshell thickness of the variety and reduce the egg breaking rate.
2）Affected by laying time
Generally, chicken farms feed around 8:00 a.m, the blood calcium concentration is high during the day, and the calcium secretion of laying hens is sufficient during the laying process, so the eggshells generally produced in the afternoon are thicker. Eggs laid in the morning are generally formed at night. Hens are mostly resting at night, with little feed intake and low blood calcium concentration, so eggs laid in the morning generally have thinner eggshells.
3) Affected by continuous egg production
Hens lay eggs continuously for a long period of time, which can easily lead to a decline in physiological functions, often making eggshells thinner or producing soft-shell eggs. Therefore, strengthening feeding management, improving feed quality, and promoting the recovery of physiological functions of laying hens as soon as possible can ensure the normal egg production of chicken flocks.
4) Thyroid dysfunction
Thyroid dysfunction in chickens will seriously affect the absorption and utilization of calcium, resulting in thin-shelled or soft-shelled eggs. Feeding thyroxine tablets for 3-5 days can quickly harden the eggshell.
Physiological changes during the moulting period of the hen will also make the eggshell thinner and increase the number of broken eggs.
6) Affected by age
Generally older hens lay larger eggs with correspondingly thinner shells
2. management factors
1) house temperature
Too high or too low temperature will affect the eggshell quality. It is now winter and the temperature is low. Chickens will increase their food intake and consume nutrients to fight the cold, and the eggshells are likely to become thinner. Therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to cold protection and heat preservation, so that the temperature in the chicken house is always within a suitable temperature range. In addition, adding 0.5‰-1.5‰ of baking soda to the feed can improve the strength of eggshells and greatly reduce the number of thin-shelled eggs and soft-shelled eggs.
2) poor ventilation
Poor ventilation in the chicken house and high ammonia concentration will cause respiratory ammonia poisoning, causing the chicken to lose more carbon dioxide, resulting in insufficient carbonate ions to form calcium carbonate, affecting the absorption of calcium, resulting in thin-shelled eggs. Therefore, it is necessary to ventilate the chicken house, clean up the feces in time, and prevent the ammonia concentration from being too high. Qinjiale fundamentally solves the problem of overfeeding, reduces the concentration of ammonia in the chicken house, reduces the occurrence of respiratory tract, and ensures that the chickens survive the winter safely.
3. Effects of Disease and Drugs
Chicken infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, pullorum, enteritis, and other diseases that damage the reproductive system can also cause chickens to lay thin or soft-shelled eggs. In order to prevent diseases, it is necessary to inoculate chicken Newcastle disease vaccine, chicken infectious bronchitis vaccine, egg production drop syndrome vaccine, fowl cholera vaccine, etc. in time according to the immunization program; take deworming medicine regularly. Excessive density of flocks, poor sanitation and fright can also cause chickens to produce thin or soft shell eggs. Therefore, during the laying period, the chickens should try to avoid the occurrence of various adverse stress factors to ensure the quality of eggs
4. feed factor
1)Insufficient calcium content in the diet
Laying hens need a lot of calcium to form eggshells. Calcium deficiency in the diet will cause chickens to produce thin or soft shell eggs. The utilization rate of calcium in the feed for chickens is only 60% of the daily intake of feed, so the calcium in the feed alone is not enough, and about 8% of stone powder or shell powder needs to be added to the feed to supplement the deficiency.
2)Insufficient phosphorus content in the diet
Phosphorus plays an important role in the formation of chicken bones, eggshells and body cells, as well as the utilization of carbohydrates, fat and calcium. The phosphorus requirement in the laying hen diet is 0.6%, of which the available phosphorus should contain 0.5%, so 1%-2% bone meal or calcium phosphate should be added to the feed to supplement the lack of calcium and phosphorus.
3)The ratio of calcium and phosphorus in the diet is out of balance
Whether it is more calcium and less phosphorus or more phosphorus and less calcium, it will have adverse effects on the health, growth, egg production and eggshell quality of chickens. The ratio of calcium and phosphorus in the general diet should be 6-8:1. If the ratio of the two is improper, it will cause chickens to produce thin or soft shell eggs. Because the calcification of egg shells mainly occurs in the evening of the previous day, the feeding time in the evening should be extended appropriately. Every evening, supplementary feeding of shell chips or bone meal to chickens can improve the quality of eggshells
4)Not enough vitamin D
Even if calcium and phosphorus in the diet are sufficient, calcium and phosphorus absorption and metabolism will be hindered, resulting in small, deformed eggs, thin and soft shells, and decreased egg production and hatchability. Therefore, the most economical and effective way to obtain vitamin D is to let chickens bask more in the sun, so that the 7-deoxycholesterol contained in the skin and feathers can be converted into vitamin D3 after being irradiated by ultraviolet rays and absorbed and utilized. Satisfactory results can be obtained by using cod liver oil as a vitamin D supplement in the diet and as a drug for the treatment of vitamin D deficiency
5) Improper use of additives
Reasonable use of additives can improve egg production rate and eggshell quality. However, the ingredients contained in various feed additives in our country are quite different at present, and the appropriate additives must be selected according to the situation of the chicken flock, and the dosage must be mastered.
The feed is mildewed due to improper storage, causing the liver and kidneys of the chicken to be invaded by aflatoxin, thus destroying the metabolism of vitamin D in the chicken, resulting in weight loss of the chicken, lower feed remuneration, poor disease resistance, and poor egg production. The amount decreases and the eggshell becomes soft.
Disclaimer: The materials and information published in this article are mainly used for learning and communication. We respect original authors and units, and support genuine editions. If this article violates your rights, please leave a message directly.