Views: 2023 Author: LONGMU Publish Time: 2023-06-27 Origin: LONGMU
The egg production level of laying hens is the most important indicator to measure the production level of laying hens. The laying performance of commercial laying hens is directly related to the economic benefits of laying hen farmers. The egg production of laying hens is affected by many factors, including disease factors and non-disease factors, among which non-disease factors include genetic factors, nutritional factors, feeding management factors, and so on.
In the production of laying hens, sometimes due to some reasons, especially the occurrence of diseases, there are more low-yielding chickens in laying hens. If the whole group is eliminated, the loss will be too great, and the partial elimination will be difficult to select and manage, which will bring huge losses to chicken production.
What factors are related to the whole egg production of the flock?
1. The peak egg production level is determined by the quality of the replacement chickens
2. The length of the peak egg production period is determined by nutrition, environment, and management level
3. The total egg production of the chicken is related to whether the chicken is sick during the laying period
4. Chicken disease resistance is determined by nutrition, environment, and management level
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Three characteristics of laying hen laying curve:
1. The egg production rate rises rapidly after the start of laying. Generally, it shows a steep upward trend. During this period, the egg production rate doubles and reaches more than 90 within 6-7 weeks of laying eggs. Usually, the egg production peak is reached at the age of 23-25 weeks, and the egg production at the peak period is more than 93%-94%.
2. The decline is stable. After the egg production peak, the egg production curve declines very smoothly and in a straight line. Usually, a weekly decline of 0.5-1%, showing a straight line of steady decline.
3. Non-compensation. During the egg production process, if encountering poor feeding management or other stimuli, the egg production rate will be lower than the standard and cannot be fully compensated.
So the laying performance of laying hens is affected by so many factors, how to improve the laying rate and maintain the balance of the laying curve is a topic of common concern to laying hen farmers.
The impact of many diseases on laying hens is mainly manifested as a decrease in egg production rate. The corresponding disease must be treated with the correct drug to alleviate the egg production rate of laying hens.
Non-disease Factors Affecting Egg Production-Feed Factors
1. The impact of purchased compound feed
In order to reduce costs, inferior concentrates and batch materials are used. With the rise of raw material prices, some feed factories have introduced low-quality, low-priced, high-protein feeds in order to meet the needs of some users. It is very high, but the available protein is low, which affects the egg production rate.
2. The influence of self-batching
The first quality problem of corn is mainly the impact of variety, moisture, plumpness, and mildew. Mycotoxins not only affect palatability but also cause decreased egg production and reduced immunity. It is best to use self-prepared feed with mold-removing antidotes— - Pumeiqing. The second problem is the quality of soybean meal. The current soybean meal market is mixed with good and evil people. The protein content of soybean meal is low, the adulteration is serious, the oil content is too high, the degree of maturity of soybean meal is not good, and farmers who self-batch ingredients have no ability to identify authenticity. Poor quality soybean meal affects the development and egg production of chickens. performance.
3. Non-disease factors affecting egg production - drug factors
Many drugs will affect the laying performance of laying hens, and improper use will cause serious economic losses. Amantadine, which was often used in the past, was widely used to prevent and control bird flu, but repeated use will not produce peak egg production and affect the quality of eggshells.
Sulfa drugs affect the synthesis of V-K and B vitamins by intestinal microorganisms, and combine with carbonic anhydrase in the body to reduce the formation and secretion of carbonate, brown-shelled eggs change color, produce thin-shelled or soft-shelled eggs, and egg production In severe cases, it can be reduced by 20%.
Oral administration of tetracyclines directly stimulates the mucous membrane of the digestive tract and affects feed intake. Long-term use not only affects eggshell quality, but also affects egg production rate.
Aminoglycosides can also affect the egg production rate, mainly because aminoglycosides interfere with the formation of vitellin, among which neomycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and ampicillin are seriously affected.
Anticoccidial drugs, except amproline, all remain in the eggs or affect the egg production rate. When the anthelmintic drug prothiamidazole is applied in large doses, the egg production rate will decrease by 30%.
Non-disease Factors Affecting Egg Production- Feeding Management Factors
If the temperature is too high or too low, it will affect the laying performance of laying hens, reduce the egg production rate, and deteriorate the quality of eggshells. In summer, if the temperature is higher than 32°C, the heat dissipation of the chicken body will be difficult, the appetite will decrease, and the feed intake will decrease. Long-term high temperature will destroy the nutritional balance of the chicken body, cause metabolic changes, reduce the thyroid function of the chicken, and lead to insufficient calcium in the chicken body. It is easy to produce thin-shelled or soft-shelled eggs; if the temperature is lower than -12°C in winter, the feed intake of chickens will decrease, the egg production rate will decrease, and the eggshells will also become thinner. Therefore, it should be ventilated and cooled in summer, and kept warm in winter to keep the temperature in the chicken house at 15-25°C, and adjust the concentration of energy, protein, and minerals in the diet of laying hens according to the season, so as to improve egg production rate and egg production rate. shell mass.
Poor ventilation in the chicken housecauses the ammonia concentration to be too high, causing respiratory ammonia poisoning, causing the chicken body to lose more CO2, resulting in insufficient carbonate ions forming calcium carbonate, affecting the absorption of calcium, and causing thin-shelled eggs. Therefore, the chicken house should be ventilated, and the feces should be cleaned in time to prevent the ammonia concentration from being too high.
Generally speaking, light can promote chicks to eat, drink water and increase exercise, promote chicken muscle and bone development, increase disease prevention ability, improve production performance, and is closely related to the age of sexual maturity and body maturity. Studies have shown that prolonging the light time during the rearing period can promote the early production of hens, and the 8-10 h light time during the rearing period is conducive to the timely start of production without affecting the total egg production, but the extension of the light time during the laying period will cause leading to a decrease in total egg production. Therefore, the design of the lighting program is of great significance to ensure the production of laying hens and providing scientific and reasonable lighting conditions for laying hens in the breeding period is also one of the effective measures to improve the production performance and economic benefits of laying hens.
Laying hens are very sensitive to various stresses, such as noise, heat and cold, changing feed, vaccination, etc., can cause the egg production rate of laying hens to decline. Therefore, we should add a certain amount of anti-stress agents in daily feeding, and strictly prohibit noise in the chicken house. At the same time, do a good job of temperature monitoring in the chicken house to prevent the temperature in the chicken house from fluctuating. When changing the feed, it should not be replaced immediately, but a transition period of 3 to 5 days should be given.
Non-Disease Factors Affecting Egg Production - Physiological Factors
The production performance of different breeds of chickens is very different. For example, the Hailan W-36 laying hen breed starts laying early, reaches the peak of laying eggs early, and the duration of laying eggs is relatively short. However, the laying hens of the Isha Brown variety started to lay late, and the peak egg production lasted relatively long. In addition, different breeds of chickens have different eggshell quality. For example, the eggshells of native breeds are thicker, while the shells of foreign breeds are thinner and easier to break. Therefore, the selection method can be used to increase the eggshell thickness of the variety and reduce the egg-breaking rate. For example, AA broilers, Hyporo broilers, Condal chickens,s and other eggshells are thick and dense, and it is not easy to break eggs, so they can be used as the first choice for raising chickens.
2. Laying time
Laying time has a great impact on the quality of eggs. Generally, chicken farms feed at around 8 o'clock. During the day, the blood calcium concentration is high, and the calcium secretion of laying hens is sufficient during the laying process, so the eggs laid in the afternoon generally have thicker shells. Eggs laid before ten o'clock are usually formed at night. At night, the hens are mostly in a resting state, with little feed intake and low blood calcium concentration. Therefore, eggs laid in the morning generally have thinner shells. Therefore, various measures should be taken to adjust the laying time of chickens.
To sum up, there are six main factors that affect the egg production rate of laying hens, namely the breed of laying hens, physiological factors, nutritional factors, management factors, environmental factors, and disease factors. Not good, will affect the egg production rate.