Views: 2023 Author: LONGMU Publish Time: 2023-05-25 Origin: LONGMU
1. Variety selection
When choosing cattle, you should choose cattle with high production performance. In practice, you should choose according to market conditions.
When choosing beef breeds, you should choose purebred meat breeds as much as possible,as well as meat hybrid offspring. When choosing dairy breeds, you should choose "Chinese Holstein", "Simmental" and hybrid offspring of dairy breeds as much as possible.
In short, when choosing a breed, it should be properly and reasonably selected according to the size of the cattle and the local breed.
2. Determination of scale
The scale of cattle raising should not be too large or too small, and should be determined according to the comprehensive conditions of rural families, including the existing cultivated land, the number of existing labor forces in the family, and the family's economic status. Generally, it is best to raise 10-30 heads for each labor force, but when the overall conditions of the family are good, raise as many as possible to obtain better economic benefits.
3. The herd structure is reasonable
Reasonable cattle herd structure is the guarantee for cattle raising to obtain maximum economic benefits, which is extremely important for farmers engaged in cattle production.
First of all, the number of cows raised in the year (the size of the herd) should be determined, so that the annual number of slaughtered cows is equal to or less than about 50% of the adult herd, and then the adult cows should be eliminated at a rate of 15% per year. There are corresponding heifers. Also, not all cows are eligible to become heifers, so heifers should account for around 20%. In this way, cows of all ages should account for about 70% of the entire herd, and bulls of all ages should account for 30% of the entire herd.
If the number of cattle in the whole herd is controlled to a certain number, calves account for about 40% of the entire herd, including 20% of female calves and male calves. Therefore, the slaughtered cattle in that year should be less than the number of surviving calves in that year, that is, the slaughtered cattle should be less than 40% of the entire herd. The appropriate proportion of cattle herd structure is conducive to improving the economic benefits of cattle production
4. Strengthen breeding and hybridization
One is to introduce the same high-quality bulls outside the herd into the herd, which can improve the quality of the herd. The second is to select excellent bulls and cows without direct blood relationship in the herd for breeding, which can also maintain the quality of the herd. The third is to introduce high-quality bulls with different qualities from the herd into the herd, and improve the quality of the herd through crossbreeding. Fourth, qualified cattle farmers should establish cattle pedigree files to prevent inbreeding, which is beneficial to the improvement of genes for good traits of cattle, continuously improve production performance, and increase economic benefits.
5. Reasonable matching of feed
One is self-prepared feed. That is, the feed preparation method that mixes multiple feeds uniformly in the same proportion generally requires more than 6 types, and local feed raw materials should be used as much as possible. The second is to make rational use of roughage. Since cattle are ruminant livestock, feeding roughage is indispensable. Feeding cattle with crop straw treated by physical, chemical and biological methods can improve the nutritional value and reduce feeding costs. The third is to reasonably match the ratio of concentrated feed to roughage. If the proportion of concentrated feed is too high and the nutrition is too much, it will lead to slow growth and development of cattle, reduce production performance, etc.
6. Implement warm shed cattle breeding
In rural areas, whether it is breeding beef cattle, fattening cattle or dairy cows, raising them in a greenhouse in winter can artificially create a suitable environment that is conducive to the growth of cattle, reduce the heat energy consumption of the cattle body, make use of this part of energy, and improve the economy of raising cattle benefit.
7, pay attention to deworming
Cattle should be dewormed twice a year, once in spring and autumn. Spring is from February to April, and autumn is from September to November. For short-term fattening cattle, insects should be dewormed at the beginning of fattening.
8. Disease prevention
In order to prevent the spread of diseases, a certain range inside and outside the barn and commonly used facilities and appliances should be disinfected and sterilized. It can be disinfected and sterilized with Lysol, quicklime, potassium permanganate, Saiweikang, etc.
However, it should be noted that the use of disinfectants with peculiar smell is prohibited in the dairy house, so as not to affect the milk quality. At the same time, according to the requirements of preventive immunization, cattle should be injected with vaccines to prevent diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease vaccines.
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