Views: 2023 Author: LONGMU Publish Time: 2023-09-07 Origin: LONGMU
In the process of laying hen breeding, in addition to the highly concerned indicators such as egg production rate and feed-to-egg ratio, the egg breakage rate is also an important factor affecting the breeding efficiency.
During production, farms should always pay attention to the egg damage of chickens and evaluate whether the damage is at a normal level. The lower the egg damage rate, the better. Under normal circumstances, it is normal to be less than 1%. If it exceeds this standard, it is necessary to find out the reason and take corresponding measures to restore the flock to normal and reduce the loss caused by egg damage.
A comprehensive analysis of the factors affecting the egg breakage rate mainly includes the following aspects:
1. Reasons for chicken breeds
The eggshell quality of eggs is highly hereditary, and there are certain differences between different varieties or strains. Usually, brown-shelled eggs are significantly better than white-shelled eggs in terms of shell thickness and hardness. Therefore, before feeding, you should consider your own feeding equipment to choose a suitable breed of laying hens, such as choosing a well-known high-yield laying hen breed. Individual breeds have pecking habits, and need to be trimmed at the age of 1 day, which can effectively reduce the number of damaged eggs.
2. Feed nutritional factors
The lack of nutrients in the feed to make synthetic eggshells will inevitably lead to a decline in the quality of eggshells. Several major nutrients include calcium, phosphorus, manganese and vitamin D. The appropriate level of their addition are:
The calcium content in the diet of laying hens is 4 times that of pullets. The calcium content in the early stage of egg laying should reach 3.7% and increase to 4% in the later stage of egg laying. However, the calcium content in the diet has an appropriate level, which is lower than 2% or higher than 4% will reduce the quality of eggshells.
It is also an important element in eggshell synthesis. Generally, 0.5%-0.6% total phosphorus in the diet of laying hens is more suitable. Giving higher levels of phosphorus in the early stages of laying can prevent the occurrence of fatigue in caged laying hens; however, the phosphorus content in the diet decreases as the chickens age, which is more conducive to the formation of high-quality eggshells. 53 weeks lowering the phosphorus content in the future can improve eggshell quality. (Needs to form a certain ratio with Ca content)
3）. Vitamin D3
Vitamin D3 can regulate the body's absorption and metabolism of calcium and phosphorus, and providing sufficient vitamin D3 can increase the thickness of eggshells. Under normal conditions, every kilogram of diet should contain 2000-2500 international units of vitamin D3.
The requirement is relatively low. The appropriate requirement for manganese for laying hens is 25 mg per kilogram of diet. When it is less than 20 mg, the quality of eggshells will decrease.
In addition, adding 0.75% sodium aluminosilicate to the diet can increase the density of eggshells by 1%-4%, and increase the feed conversion rate by 2.2%; under high temperature conditions, supplement vitamin C50-100 mg or Adding 0.25% baking soda can improve eggshell quality and reduce breakage rate.
3. The impact of feeding management
1）. Stocking density
The number of chickens in the cage directly affects the breakage of the eggs. The crowding of the chickens in the cage not only affects the feed intake and nutrient intake, but also increases the frequency of trampling on the chickens, causing the eggs to be trampled by the chickens after they are laid. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure that the chickens it only reaches the standard of the cage area for the breed.
Reasonable light is the basis for chickens to produce qualified eggs. Generally, the light intensity of laying hens is 10-20 lux, and the light time is maintained at about 16 hours. For chickens with low body weight, 0.5 hours of light at night can be added appropriately, which can supplement part of the nutrition of chickens with insufficient feed intake, which is conducive to the formation of eggshells, improves the quality of eggshells, and reduces damaged eggs and shell-less eggs.
Stress can cause a sudden increase in the egg breakage rate, especially heat stress in summer, which not only reduces chicken feed intake, increases thin-shelled eggs, but also reduces egg production rate. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid or reduce the occurrence of various stresses during the peak period of egg production of chickens every day, and keep the chicken house quiet and without disturbance; chicken flock immunity should be carried out before the egg laying time; in summer, add vitamin C to drinking water , reduce the degree of heat stress.
Various operations such as egg collection, packaging, transportation, loading and unloading will also cause damage to eggs. For example, when picking up eggs, move gently and at least twice a day. Especially for automatic egg collecting equipment, be careful during each operation. Operation can reduce the number of broken eggs.
5）. Equipment management
Pay attention to the operation of the breeding equipment, especially the chicken cages and egg nets, every day when feeding, disinfecting and inspecting the chickens. Make sure they are intact and repair them in time if there is any damage or deformation. In addition, keep the slope of the cage bottom at about 7° to keep the eggs roll out slowly postpartum to avoid bumps.
6）. Age of chickens
As the age of the chickens increases, the egg weight gradually increases and the eggshell strength gradually decreases, resulting in increased breakage. Therefore, additional stone powder can be added to the chickens in the late laying period to improve eggshell quality. It is usually added at 4 o'clock in the afternoon to help enhance the strength of the eggshell when the eggshell is formed at night, but the total amount added and the original amount It is better to be 4%.
4. Disease factors
Viral diseases such as chicken infectious bronchitis and Newcastle disease will seriously reduce the quality of eggshells. On the one hand, the diseases cause the chickens to reduce their feed intake and insufficient nutritional intake. On the other hand, these diseases directly damage the reproductive system and destroy the eggshells. Glands that affect eggshell formation. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate scientific and reasonable immunization procedures to prevent the occurrence of diseases such as transmission and Newcastle disease.
In addition, non-viral diseases also affect the formation of eggshells, which should also be paid more attention. For example, Escherichia coil and Salmonella cause damage to the digestive tract, reduced digestion and absorption capacity, and reduced eggshell quality; mycotoxin in feed can also cause reproductive disorders, causing an increase in soft-shell eggs, which will lead to an increase in breakage rates. Therefore, it is necessary to ensure the cleanliness of the breeding environment, to avoid the mixing of toxic and harmful substances into the feed or drinking water, and to avoid the entrance of diseases through the mouth.
To sum up, there are various factors that cause the increase in egg breakage rate. In actual production, specific problems must be analyzed in detail and solved symptomatically to ensure egg safety and improve breeding profits.
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