Views: 2023 Author: LONGMU Publish Time: 2023-06-01 Origin: LONGMU
A must-see for beginners raising chickens
With the improvement of people's living standards, turkey dinners are becoming more and more popular, and there are many ways to eat them, and the taste is very good. It is a very good delicacy when paired with high-quality grape wine. Turkey is from the West. A kind of poultry introduced is the first choice in food no matter its medical value or nutritional value. So what is the future of turkey farming? Let's take a look together next time!
1. The economic value of turkey
The turkey is tender, delicious and has a good texture. Why is turkey so popular? The main reason is that the protein content of turkey meat is 20% higher than that of other poultry, while the fat content is 21% lower, and the cholesterol content is low. Compared with broiler chicken, turkey has higher nutritional value. In the food industry, turkey has been praised by nutritionists as a "super nutritious food" with high protein and low fat. Turkey is mainly herbivorous, with fresh and tender meat, no odor, no drug residue, mellow and delicious taste, suitable for all ages, suitable for both high-end dining tables and ordinary families, it is a good maintenance product that combines nutrition and food.
2. The market prospect of turkey
Turkey is very popular abroad, and large-scale industrial farming has already been carried out. Although it has not been introduced in my country for a long time, turkey has been included in the "National Spark" because of its fast growth, large size, tender and delicious meat, rich nutrition, grass-eating and food-saving. "Development and enrichment projects have a good development prospect.
At present, my country's turkey market is developing rapidly. The main consumer market has penetrated from the coastal areas of Guangdong to large and medium-sized cities in East China and North China, and the total sales volume has increased. For a long time, many people did not like to eat turkey because they did not know the nutritional value of turkey, let alone the processing and cooking of turkey. With the improvement of people's living standard and turkey meat processing level in recent years, the status of turkey meat in the consumer market is constantly rising. There has been a very hot situation, and now turkey has become a popular high-quality new poultry meat, and occupies an important position in the consumption of poultry meat in the world. With the development of my country's export-oriented economy and the optimization of people's food structure, it is believed that the turkey farming industry will also flourish like foreign countries, forming a unique style of turkey food, and choosing turkey will become a market development trend. Turkey farming will become an industry with promising farming prospects, and turkey will gradually become a mass consumer product and a new favorite on the Chinese table.
Turkeys are native to the Americas and have been domesticated and raised for hundreds of years. Some countries in Europe and the United States started raising turkeys earlier and developed rapidly. Especially in the past ten years, many excellent quality and strains have been cultivated; industries such as turkey breeding equipment, feed processing, disease prevention and food processing have also correspondingly As it developed, factory feeding gradually replaced grazing feeding. In the past, only a small amount of turkeys were raised in some areas of our country. In the past 10 years, Jiangsu, Beijing, Shanghai and other places have successively introduced new turkey varieties from abroad, and promoted the improved varieties to all parts of the country, so that the turkey breeding industry has developed rapidly.
1. The economic value of turkey
Turkey is a kind of meat poultry. The characteristics of raising turkeys are: high feed remuneration, high meat production, good meat quality, large body size, fast growth, and strong adaptability. Low in cholesterol. It can be seen that turkey is a very promising high-grade meat poultry with both nutrition and taste.
2. The living habits of turkeys
Due to the short period of domestication and domestication, turkeys still retain many characteristics of wild birds.
Turkeys are very nest-brooding, and generally nest-brooding occurs once every 10-15 eggs are laid.
Turkeys are highly adaptable to the climate, especially cold-resistant. It is also possible to stay at night in the wind and rain, forage for food or sunbathe on the snow, and are suitable for grazing.
Turkeys are more sensitive to stimuli in their surroundings. When people and animals approach, the male turkey will erect its feathers, and the meat whiskers on its head will change from red to blue, white, pink, purple and other colors, indicating self-defense; when it hears an unfamiliar sound, it will make a "cluck" cry It is suitable for keeping in a quiet environment.
Male turkeys are very aggressive, but they don't fight to the death. As long as one party surrenders and escapes, the fight will stop.
Turkeys like to live in groups. They are docile, slow-moving and easy to manage.
3. Feeding and management of young turkeys
The brooding period of turkeys generally refers to 0-8 weeks of age. Turkey brooding is a very meticulous, difficult and important work. It not only affects the survival rate and growth of young turkeys, but also affects the growth and development of the rearing stage and the breeding value of adult turkeys.
(1) Physiological characteristics of young turkeys
① Young turkeys before 10 days of age have low body temperature, thin and short fluff, and weak regulation of body temperature. From the age of 10 days to 40 days, the regulation function of body temperature is gradually perfected. Therefore, young turkeys need to be artificially given a suitable ambient temperature after hatching to maintain normal life activities.
②The metabolism of young turkeys is strong, and their growth and development are very fast. At the age of 4 weeks, their body weight can reach 10 times that of the first eggs, and they need to be supplied with sufficient and full-priced feed.
③Young turkeys have no self-defense ability and are easily violated by other animals, so the brooding house must have defense facilities.
④ The immune function of young turkeys is immature, their disease resistance is poor, and they are susceptible to epidemics. Therefore, vaccines and drugs must be used in time to prevent epidemics.
(2) Feeding and management of young turkeys
The first is to create good environmental conditions.
①Temperature: Newborn chicks must be given a suitable temperature due to their insufficient body temperature regulation function. If the temperature is too low, the young turkeys will get together because they are afraid of the cold, which will affect their feeding and exercise, or they will catch a cold and have diarrhea, and in severe cases, they will die due to heap pressure. If the temperature is too high, the chicks will lose their appetite, and their growth and development will be slow. You should measure whether the temperature is appropriate. First, look at the thermometer, and second, pay attention to the mental state and activity performance of the turkey flock. When the temperature is suitable, the turkey has good spirit and appetite, is lively and active, evenly distributed, sleeps quietly at night, and sleeps in a stretched and comfortable state. If the temperature is high, the young turkeys will stay away from the heat source, open their mouths to breathe, lose their appetite, increase their drinking water, and even appear pecking addiction. When the temperature is low, the young turkeys crowd around the heat source, get together, move slowly, shrink their necks and arch their backs, and sleep restlessly.
The brooding temperature should generally vary with seasons, day and night, age and density. The principles it grasps are: it can be high in winter and low in summer; it can be high in rainy days and low in sunny days; it can be high at night and low in the daytime; The temperature difference is about 2°C.
② Humidity: The air in the house is too humid or dry, which is not good for the growth of young turkeys. Excessive humidity makes it difficult to evaporate water and dissipate body heat. Young turkeys in summer feel stuffy and prone to coccidiosis and fungal disease; young turkeys in winter feel cold and catch colds easily. If it is too dry, a large amount of water in the body will be released along with breathing, which will cause malabsorption of egg yolk in the abdomen of the young chick just out of the shell, and the young chick will suffer from diarrhea due to excessive drinking. The suitable relative humidity is: 60%~65% before 2 weeks of age; 55%~60% after 2 weeks of age. The humidity in the south is high, so pay attention to moisture protection. When heating broods with fire pits and coal stoves, care should be taken to prevent over-drying.
③ Ventilation: Young turkeys have a strong metabolism and fast breathing, so they need enough fresh air. The brooding house should have ventilation facilities to keep the air fresh. When the young turkeys are 2 weeks old and the weather is sunny and warm, the air can be adjusted by opening and closing the windows and doors, but the windows should be covered with curtains to avoid direct cold wind and cause the young turkeys to catch a cold.
④ Light: Appropriate light can improve the vitality of young turkeys and promote growth and development. Lighting includes natural lighting and artificial lighting. Open brooding houses should take advantage of natural light as much as possible. Young turkeys have weak vision and can only see what is in front of them. Therefore, strong light and long light should be used in the first few days so that the young turkeys can see the troughs and drinking fountains clearly and "start eating" as soon as possible.
⑤ Density: Reasonable stocking density is an important condition to ensure the healthy growth and good development of turkey flocks. If the density is too high, it will hinder the young turkeys from eating, drinking and exercising, resulting in uneven development of the group, pecking habit, and increased death. If the density is too small and the utilization rate of equipment is low, it is a waste. The specific stocking density should be determined according to the actual situation: generally, the density of large breeds should be lower, and the density of small breeds can be higher;
4: Followed by careful feeding and management
① Start food early: After the young turkeys hatch, they should be supplied with drinking water and feed as soon as possible, generally not exceeding 24 hours. Eating at the right time not only helps young turkeys absorb egg yolk and excrete meconium, but also promotes growth and development. Eating too late will affect growth and development, and even cause some young turkeys to die due to hunger, thirst and dehydration. Within 3 days after hatching, the feeding tray and drinking fountain should be placed near the heat source, so that the young turkeys can drink and eat easily, and then gradually remove them, so that they develop the habit of leaving the insulation umbrella to eat and drink .
②Drinking water: After the young turkeys hatch, the first drinking water should be 1 to 2 hours earlier than the feeding, so that the young turkeys will not choke when eating, and it is best to drink warm water. In addition, a little glucose, penicillin, and streptomycin can be put in the drinking water in the first 3 days. The dosage is 200,000 units of penicillin or 1 million units of streptomycin for 1,000 young turkeys each time, which is conducive to the survival of turkeys.
③ Feeding: Young turkeys should be fed less and more frequently. Generally, new materials should be added every 2 to 3 hours in the first 3 days, and the remaining materials should be cleaned out before adding new materials. In the future, the number of feedings can be gradually reduced and the amount of feeding can be increased as the age increases. When feeding each time, pay attention to observe the eating situation of the young turkeys, and replenish them in time for those who are not full. It is strictly forbidden to feed moldy and rotten feed.
Turkeys like to eat green feed such as leeks, onions, garlic, alfalfa, etc. You can chop up the green feed and mix it with the feed, which not only satisfies the turkey's herbivorous habit, but also supplements a lot of vitamins and trace elements and other nutrients, which are very beneficial to the growth and development of young turkeys.
④ Set up fences: In the first 2 weeks, due to the poor body temperature regulation function of the young turkeys, in order to prevent the young turkeys from running around and crowding, a fence should be set up near the heat source to divide the young turkeys into several small groups. Remove the fence after 2 weeks, or gradually increase the area of the fence. This method is very important to improve the survival rate of brooding. If a heat preservation umbrella with a diameter of 1.5 meters is used for heating, 300-350 young turkeys can be placed under each heat preservation umbrella.
⑤ Beak trimming: Beak trimming can effectively prevent pecking and reduce feed waste. Beak trimming is generally carried out at the age of 10-14 days. The scale of beak trimming is: the upper beak is cut off by 1/2, and the lower beak is cut off by 1/3, forming a short top and a long bottom. Beak trimmers or electric soldering irons can be used as tools for beak trimming. Do not cut off the tip when breaking the meeting. After the meeting, the material in the feeding plate should be filled up, so as to prevent the wound from coming into the food when eating the material to touch the bottom of the feeding plate and cause pain and affect the feeding.
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